Trees may be kept in a cool dark place out of the box with the roots in the bag for a week. Check that the roots are moist. If the soil is too sloppy or frozen, “heel” in the plants (cover the roots) with moist soil or sand in a shady place to protect the roots from freezing. It is particularly important to keep fig, persimmons and pomegranate roots moist, but not soggy! If the roots seem dry, soak them for a few hours before healing them in. Trees must be planted before they leaf out.
Fruit, nut trees and vines require a minimum of 6 hours of sun per day during the growing season; stone fruits do better with even more. In the hottest climates, partial shade during the warmest part of the day can improve texture of apples; pruning for a denser canopy can achieve the same result. Trees to be espaliered (trained two dimensions) will give the best fruit if planted on the east or north facing walls in hot climates while in cooler climates a west or south facing wall is preferred. If fruit trees are planted in a lawn, be sure not to sprinkle the trunks and plant high to provide good drainage for the crown.
The ultimate height of the tree will dictate your spacing requirement. The great majority of our trees ultimate height will reach 12-16 ft. If you decide to only winter prune for corrective measures, 12-16 ft. would be adequate spacing. The trees can be spaced much closer if you decide to summer prune for height control. Previous generations pruned fruit trees in winter because it was the one farming activity available during the frozen weather. Once spring rolled around, the chores on the farm never allowed us time to prune our trees. So it was left for the winter, but today that routine has begun to shift. Simply summer prune when the trees grow taller than desired. We often summer prune lightly in July. Pruning in the winter will stimulate more growth, summer pruning reduces the vigor and keeps the trees manageable.The ultimate height of the tree will dictate your spacing requirement. The great majority of our trees ultimate height will reach 12-16 ft. If you decide to only winter prune for corrective measures, 12-16 ft. would be adequate spacing. The trees can be spaced much closer if you decide to summer prune for height control. Previous generations pruned fruit trees in winter because it was the one farming activity available during the frozen weather. Once spring rolled around, the chores on the farm never allowed us time to prune our trees. So it was left for the winter, but today that routine has begun to shift. Simply summer prune when the trees grow taller than desired. We often summer prune lightly in July. Pruning in the winter will stimulate more growth, summer pruning reduces the vigor and keeps the trees manageable.
Experts advise not to add amendments to the native soil in the planting hole. This will avoid creating a “clay pot” in heavy soil that will impede root growth into the surrounding soil. If your soil is poor, fertilize on the soil surface. High quality compost is recommended. Chemical fertilizers or fresh manure in the hole can burn the roots. Apply a moderate amount of fertilizer such as fish meal or blood meal to the soil surface and water in before the growing season. Another light application in late June is desirable if growth is not vigorous. Fertilizing late in the season can delay dormancy.
Dig a hole slightly larger than the root system of the tree. For maximum growth, do not prune the roots. Plant the trees so that the graft line sits 2" or 3" above the soil surface. It is best to plant on a slight mound in high rainfall areas. This will prevent water standing around the trunk which can lead to collar or root rot. Avoid air pockets around the roots by slightly tamping down the soil (see planting illustration on back). Water trees thoroughly after planting and then not again until the tree leafs out, unless soil is extremely dry as in winter drought conditions. One common mistake first-time orchardists make is drowning trees in the first season, especially apricots, cherries, figs and pomegranates. Use stakes to keep trees upright in windy areas, to anchor dwarf trees or to protect from weeding equipment. Staking a semi–dwarf or standard tree is often not necessary.
Trees in containers require much more frequent watering and feeding. Porous walled pots will lose moisture too rapidly compared to thick walled tub or whiskey barrel. Suggested soil mix for pot: equal parts compost, perlite and peat moss. Containerized trees can get root bound after two or three years. Replant into larger container or planter after trimming back some of the large woody roots. If returning to the same container, trim back more of the roots and add some new soil. To minimize the problem, choose dwarf rootstock when available.
Except in cool climates, paint the trunk of your newly planted tree before hot weather begins, starting just below the soil line and paint up to the first prominent side branches. If it’s a whip paint the whole tree. We use an interior white latex paint diluted 25% with water. This will protect the tender bark from sunburn and discourage the apple borers. If borers are a particular problem, diatomaceous earth around the trunk can discourage them.
Generally cut back untrained trees before planting to balance the trunk with the roots that were lost when the trees were dug out in the nursery. This will also encourage strong side branching. Cut back to about 3 feet above the ground for trees with a trunk at ½” diameter (measure just above the graft, 4 feet for trees 5/8” diameter and 5 feet for ¾” trees. Many of our trees have substantial side branches already. Choose a few of the strongest and best placed for permanent branches and cut those back to three or four buds. Then remove the remaining side branches. Too many small little side shoots will divide the energy of the tree so that strong side branches will not form.
Once leafed out,fruit and nut trees in the ground need regular watering, twice a week or more in hot weather, throughout the first season. Mature trees on standard rootstock can be dry farmed in deep soils, but semi-dwarf and dwarf rootstock will need regular deep watering unless it rains throughout the summer. Trees in containers need to be checked almost daily during warm weather. The soil should feel moist 4 or five inches below the soil surface. Curled leaves are probably a sign of insufficient water or nutrient deficiency. Lastly, if you have clay soils it's very important to add calcium multiple times a year around your fruit trees. The irrigation or rain will leach this critical nutrient into the root zone. Typically you'll find calcium in two forms lime (if soil is acidic) or gypsum (if soil is alkaline).
Image provided by Robert Kourik
Big Picture for Pruning Fruit Trees
Garden literature is full of pruning information, but beginners can easily be overwhelmed. The most important thing is to understand how the tree grows and the benefits of making a cut. Observe the tree's natural growth habit. What will its form be when it matures? Start slowly; always have a good reason before making any cut.
Pruning is said to be “what man does in his efforts to grow plants the way he wants them.” Yet nature prunes ruthlessly using shade, wind, fruit overload, ice and snow. These natural operations often destroy the tree, allowing decay to enter. Human efforts can enhance beauty, form, and fruit production, strengthen structure, and prevent wounds and disease, ultimately extending the tree's health and life.
Proper pruning shapes the tree to allow good sun exposure. This encourages optimal photosynthesis. Sunlight actually strengthens the fruiting wood; shading inhibits growth.
The “open center” and “central leader” systems are two pruning methods the gardener can choose.
“Open center” is designed to produce a smaller tree. The fruit can be harvested without a ladder and pruning is done from the ground. Three to four strong scaffold (or main structural) branches are chosen, evenly distributed around the trunk. The total height is below 6 feet. This creates a more open tree, increasing fruit quality by allowing greater light penetration and air circulation, which discourages disease and insects.
“Central leader” produces a taller tree, allowing a larger harvest and more shade. A central branch becomes dominant, and the lower scaffolding branches are chosen to grow evenly below and around the leader.
Once the system is decided upon, pruning should be done in February or March after severe winter weather is over. Never prune on a wet day as fungal disease spores are spread by water. Tools should be sharp, of high quality, so that cuts will be clean (not tearing the wood jaggedly).
You may be asking which branches to cut first. The easiest way to see the tree's framework is in the winter without the leaves. First cut branches that are broken, dead or diseased. Branches growing straight down, straight up or directly into another branch can also be removed. If there are suckers around the bottom of the trunk, remove them. Remove small branches before larger branches are selected. Next, choose the structure or scaffolding branches, usually 3 or 4, to be evenly distributed around the trunk. Pruning during the first 4-5 years establishes framework and is called training.
Cuts made at the main trunk are called thinning. The branch should be removed just above the wrinkled “shoulder” where it attaches, making the smallest cut possible. Wounds left after the cut should not be covered with ointment or paint. Natural drying seals the tree from infection.
Cuts, made at a lateral outward-facing bud, are called heading back, and encourage growth in a specific direction. Each bud allowed to remain will swell into growth, ultimately becoming a branch. This determines which way growth proceeds. It is important to cut just above the bud, leaving only ¼ inch. Otherwise, a dead stub will develop which is unsightly and may allow entrance of disease.
Pruning is essential for quality fruit. Sun exposed wood produces the best fruit. Some fruit is produced on longer-lived spurs or branches. This influences whether pruning should be light or heavy. Cherry, European plum and pear trees bear on long- lived spurs, so retain most spurs for fruiting. They should be lightly pruned which means removing approximately 20% of the branches. Apple trees can be pruned a bit more. Apricot, peaches, nectarine, fig and Japanese plum bear on one-year growth, so pruning can be heavier, up to 50%. If a tree lacks vigor, it should be heavily pruned while dormant to encourage new growth. If a tree is overly vigorous, pruning can be done in the summer in addition to winter to reduce the volume of leaf growth.
Resist the urge to spray pesticides on your fruit trees since beneficial insects will be destroyed before pollination can occur. Bees are an integral part of the life cycle of flower to fruit. Now is the time to spray the entire tree with dormant oil to suffocate over-wintering pests, but don't spray when temperatures are below 40 degrees